MASWALI YA TAFSIRI NA UKALIMANI (KENYA)

By , in TAFSIRI/UKALIMANI on .

CHUO KIKUU CHA MAASAI MARA

 

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015

                                                                                                          

REGULAR EXAMS (MAY-AUGUST, 2015)

 

MAIN EXAM

 

SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES & LITERATURE

COURSE TITLE: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION II

 

COURSE CODE: BKS 221

 

MUDA: SAA 2

MAAGIZO:

JIBU SWALI LA KWANZA NA MENGINE MAWILI

1a) Tofautisha tafsiri na ukalimani    (alama 8)

  1. b) Fafanua sifa za mfasiri bora (alama 4)
  2. c) Eleza hatua mbili kuu za kufasiri kwa mashine (alama 4)

d)Onyesha majukumu ya nadharia ya tafsiri  (alama 8)

  1. e) Eleza dhana zifuatazo:
  2. i) Nadharia ya kisemantiki (alama 3)
  3. ii) Nadharia ya Usuluhishi (alama 3)
  4. Tafsiri kwa Kiswahili makala A (alama 20)
  5. Tafsiri kwa Kiingereza makala ya B (alama 20)
  6. Jadili nadharia ya mawasiliano katika tafsiri ilivyodokezwa na Peter Newmark.  (alama 20)
  7. Onyesha uhusiano wa nadharia ya tafsiri na taaluma nyingine (alama 20)

Makala A

NINA:  Jusper, where were you?

JUSPER:  Serving the nation.

NINA:  How could you desert your brother?

JUSPER:  It was an order.

NINA:  What order? You take off that thing and go and put on something descent. The others will soon be here.

JUSPER:  Is Regina with them?

NINA: Perhaps.

JUSPER:  Girlfriend number one; she ought to come.

NINA:  She’s far away in the city. Where is your father?

DOGA:  (Whispering rather loudly.) Do not detain him. Let him go.

JUSPER:  He can’t go; he is dead.

NINA:  My son, please go and put on a clean shirt.

JUSPER:  A clean shirt? No. Not after the murder.

NINA: What shall we do now? The illness creeps back on him. Jusper , do you know what  day today is?

DOGA:  Don’t remind him.

JUSPER:  Come and see for yourself. (Points at the crack.) Do you see this river, all this water? I threw him in there. Don’t tell me he swam away, because he didn’t. He was dead when I threw him there.

NINA:  He thinks he has killed you. Please do something before he spoils the ceremony.

DOGA: I told you to shut that mouth!

JUSPER:  Alright, I will shut up. Nobody need know am a murderer. (throws the sticks away.) After all, it was great fun. Now I know how they feel when they do it. Shall I go and confess I did it?

NINA: Yes my son, go and put on a clean shirt and then you can confess.

JUSPER:  Do you think they will harm me if I address the rally?

NINA:  No, they won’t. Just go and put your shirt first.

JUSPER:  Will they put him in a government coffin, do you think?

NINA:  Good God, what shall we do?

JUSPER:  I will go and recommend a government coffin with many handles so that everybody will help lower him into the grave. (He smiles, stands at attention, salutes, then exits, military style.)

NINA:  He has never behaved like this before.

DOGA:  His eyes were full of sleep.

NINA: Why did he think he had killed you?

DOGA:  It was his brother he thought he had killed.  I saw him address the grave as if Adika sat right on top of it. It was both strange and frightening.

Makala B

Kwa muda mrefu, kumejitokeza majaribio yanayolenga katika kuieleza lugha pasina mafanikio makubwa hadi pale ilipoanza kutumika mikabala ya kisayansi. Mikabala ya kisayansi ikawa mihimili na misingi dhabiti ya kuichunguzia lugha. Wataalamu mbalimbali wameeleza maana ya isimu, mathalan Besha(1994)ambaye anaifafanua isimu kama taaluma ambayo inachunguza na kuweka wazi kanuni ambazo ni msingi wa kila lugha. TUKI (1990) wanaeleza kuwa isimu ni sayansi ya lugha. Basi, tunaweza kusema kuwa isimu ni taaluma inayohakiki lugha kisayansi. Isimu ni sayansi ya matamshi,maumbo,miundo,maana na matumizi ya lugha.

Taaluma hii hutumia mtazamo wa kisayansi katika kuichambua lugha kinyume na ilivyokuwa hapo zamani ambapo watafiti waliathiriwa na hisia na mielekeo yao. Taaluma hii hujaribu kujibu maswali mbalimbali kuhusu lugha.Maswali haya ni pamoja na: Lugha ni nini? Lugha hufanyaje kazi? Huwa unajua nini unaposema unajua lugha fulani? Je, lugha ni sifa ya binadamu pekee? Lugha ya binadamu hutofautianaje na mawasiliano ya wanyama? Asili ya lugha ni ipi? Kwa nini kuna lugha nyingi? Lugha hubadilikaje? Watoto hujifunzaje lugha? Je, lugha na lahaja fulani ni rahisi kuliko nyingine? Mtu huandikaje na kuchanganua lugha isiyokuwemo kwenye maandishi?

Wataalamu ambao wanashughulikia haya masuala kuhusu lugha huitwa wanaisimu. Mwanaisimu ni mtu anayechunguza lugha kisayansi kwani ana ujuzi wa kanuni zinazoitawala lugha. Mwanaisimu huichanganua na kuieleza lugha kwa kurejelea matukio ya kiisimu kama vile mfumo wa irabu na muundo wa vitenzi vilivyoko katika lugha. Labda swali tunaloweza kujiuliza hapa ni: je malengo ya isimu ni yepi? Suala hili linashughulikiwa katika sehemu inayofuata.

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